Download e-book for kindle: Assessment of an ultramicroelectrode array UMEA) sensor for by Xudong Xie

By Xudong Xie

ISBN-10: 3937300481

ISBN-13: 9783937300481

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Additional resources for Assessment of an ultramicroelectrode array UMEA) sensor for the determination of trace concentrations of heavy metals in water

Sample text

As for composite microelectrodes, it can be generally divided into array electrodes and ensemble electrodes, depending on whether the surface of composite electrodes consists of uniform (array) or random (ensemble) dispersions of a conductor region within a continuous insulating matrix (TALLMAN 1990). The array electrodes are normally fabricated using microphotolithography (FIACCABRINO & KOUDELKA-HEP 1997, ANDREWS & HARRIS 1998, SUZUKI 2000, DATTA & LANDOLT 2000) and screen-printing (SEDDON ET AL.

2 Surface analysis Figures 14a and 14b show two examples of ESEM pictures of iridium UMEs. Very regular disc shaped electrodes with well-defined areas and sharp edges are observed, which are typical features for the microdisc geometry. The surfaces of the UMEs are totally free of photoresist deposition or passivation layer. However, at large magnification (40,000 X), fine cracks could be found on the surfaces of all UMEs, which may be due to the difficulty in generating a thick Ir film of iridium during the fabrication process (WANG ET AL.

In this way, a large faradaic current can be isolated from the charging current of the electrodes, increasing thus the sensitivity of measurements. 1 Definition of microelectrodes Microelectrodes are commonly known also as ultramicroelectrodes. There is no consistent opinion about its definition. Different conceptions are given here for reference: • The term of microelectrode is reserved for electrodes with at least one dimension not greater than 25 µm (W ANG 2000). • It has become practice to use the term UME for disc electrodes with a diameter smaller than or equal to 20 µm (HEINZE 1993).

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Assessment of an ultramicroelectrode array UMEA) sensor for the determination of trace concentrations of heavy metals in water by Xudong Xie


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