By Giulio Aniello Santoro M.D., Ph.D., Giuseppe Di Falco M.D. (auth.)
Read Online or Download Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer PDF
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Additional resources for Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer
The 5 layers of the rectal wall are clearly illustrated in the coronal plane as well as in the transaxial and the longitudinal image planes (Fig. 21). References canal and rectum. World J Surg 2000; 24:208-15 4. Hildebrandt U, Feifel G. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer by intrarectal ultrasound. Dis Colon Rectum 1985;28:42-6 5. Hussain SM, Stoker J, Schutte HE, Lameris JS. Imaging of the anorectal region. Europ J RadioI1996;22:116-22 6. Hunerbein M, Schlag PM. 3D-endosonography for staging of rectal cancer.
A. Santoro, G. Di Falco The normal rectum is 11-15 cm long and has a maximum diameter of 4 cm. It is continuous with the sigmoid colon superiorly at the level of the third sacral segment and courses inferiorly along the curve of the sacrum to pass through the pelvic diaphragm and become the anal canal (Fig. I3). It is surrounded by fibrofatty tissue that contains blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics and small lymph nodes. The superior one third is covered anteriorly and laterally by the pelvic peritoneum.
I 9. Sonographic view of the rectum at the level of the prostate in a male patient (arrow) Interface. hyperechoic 2 layers. hypoechoic (mucosae) '~ . ,~ . ~ . ~,,~p, 'IJ 1 layer. hyperechoic (submucosa) '. '. Itllt, ----a..... '! , ~h~ 41 . '/'-'. ' .... ) 7J/f:0l" 2 layers. ~ , : t (muscolarrs propr ia) ~ ~. / l l. '. : ~ c.. \' 1 layer. hypoechoic ~ \'i? '. (perrrectal fat t .. ,". , t. \-. 11 . ,/ Fig. 21. Normal ultrasound anatomy of the rectal wall in 3D (Fig. 19) and the uterus, cervix and vagina in the female (Fig.
Atlas of Endoanal and Endorectal Ultrasonography: Staging and Treatment Options for Anorectal Cancer by Giulio Aniello Santoro M.D., Ph.D., Giuseppe Di Falco M.D. (auth.)
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