By Paul R. Berman
The sector of atom interferometry has increased speedily in recent times, and todays study laboratories are utilizing atom interferometers either as inertial sensors and for precision measurements. Many researchers additionally use atom interferometry as a way of discovering basic questions in quantum mechanics. Atom Interferometry comprises contributions from theoretical and experimental physicists on the leading edge of this speedily constructing box. Editor Paul R. Berman contains a good stability of history fabric and up to date experimental results,providing a basic review of atom interferometry and demonstrating the promise that it holds for the longer term. Key positive factors * contains contributions from a few of the examine teams that experience pioneered this rising box * Discusses and demonstrates new elements of the wave nature of atoms * Explains the various very important purposes of atom interferometry, from a size of the gravitational consistent to atom lithography * Examines functions of atom interferometry to essentially very important quantum mechanics difficulties
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Additional info for Atom Interferometry
For precision measurements these shifts must be accounted for in the analysis. For a 4% Gaussian velocity spread, the contrast is reduced to 28% of its initial value and the observed phase [given by Eq. 20% at Aq~ = 40 rad. This phase error can be avoided by the velocity multiplexing technique described later. In our experiments, the reduction of the contrast can be parametrized by the coherence length defined by l~oh = 1/tr, of the beam. In the case of linear dispersion, iff(k) is a Gaussian distribution with rms width tr, centered at k 0, the above equation then reduces to C = C o exp - ~[Aq~(ko)]2 ,-D-: .
1983). C. CONTRASTINTERFEROMETRY If all atoms in our interferometer have the same interaction potential and the same velocity, their interference patterns will all be in phase and will combine to give an observed interference pattern of maximum contrast. , 1994a). Of particular interest is the case when the internal states of atoms or molecules in our beam respond differently to some applied interaction. As we shall now discuss, this can result in a periodic degradation and revival of the contrast of fringes in our interferometer.
To prevent FIG. 4. Transmission electron microscope picture of a 140 nm period grating. The orthogonal support structure has a 4/zm period. 12 Jarg Schmiedmayer et al. FIG. 5. , 1991b). , 1995). The areas in the PMMA exposed by the e-beam writer are washed away with a mixture of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and isopropanol (IPA). , 199 l b), leaving a free-standing pattern of slots in the silicon nitrate membrane (Fig. 4). 8 mm. OPTICS AND INTERFEROMETRY 13 B. , 1995a). Diffraction patterns for a pure Na 2 b e a m and a mixed N a - N a 2 beam, obtained using a 100 nm grating, are shown in Fig.
Atom Interferometry by Paul R. Berman
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