By Wolfgang Demtröder

ISBN-10: 3540206310

ISBN-13: 9783540206316

This creation to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been built over the past centuries via many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical aspect via the creation of quantum physics to the sufficient description of micro-particles.

It illustrates the wave version of debris via many examples and exhibits the bounds of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its strength for spectroscopy is printed in additional element and particularly lasers as glossy spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.

Many examples and issues of ideas should still set off the reader to an excessive lively cooperation.

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**Additional resources for Atoms, Molecules and Photons: An Introduction to Atomic -, Molecular- and Quantum Physics**

**Example text**

In a liquid (for instance in liquid helium or argon) the atoms can be assumed to be densely packed (otherwise the liquid could be more readily compressed). 50a) where NA is the Avogadro number. Assuming a spherical size of the atom, its radius r0 is r0 (3Va /4π)1/3 . 50b) After discussing two further methods we will see in Sect. 8 that atoms cannot be regarded as rigid balls with a well-deﬁned radius. The electron cloud around the atomic nucleus can be described by a charge distribution that gradually decreases with increasing radius and differs from the mass distribution within the atom.

The Concept of the Atom + a) Conductive layer Heater Barium supply R − Tungsten tip ZnS screen dius R) with a magniﬁcation factor M = R/r. With R = 10 cm and r = 10 nm a magniﬁcation of M = 107 is achieved (Fig. 22). Even with this device, only the locations of electron emission are measured but no direct information on the structure of atoms is obtained. If other atoms with a small work functions are brought to the cathode surface (for example by evaporating barium atoms from an oven near the cathode) then the electron emission mainly comes from these atoms.

45b) and therefore the mean square deviation of a particle from its position at time t = 0 in a gas with viscosity η is kT ξ2 = ∆t . 46) 3πηr It depends on the temperature T , the viscosity η and the radius r of the particle and increases linearly with time ∆t. The quantity ξ 2 , which is a measure of the mean deviation of a particle from its original location at time t = 0 increases during √ the time interval ∆t only with the square root ∆t. 46). 12]. A modern version of it is shown in Fig. 20a.

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